1. Note Heads and Stem DirectionNote_Heads_and_Stem_Direction.html
3. Applying AccidentalsApplying_Accidentals.html
2. BarringBarring.html
5. Rhythm Slashes and the Drum SetRhythm_Slashes_and_the_Drum_Set.html
6. More on Time SignaturesMore_on_Time_Signatures.html
7. Other Staff SymbolsOther_Staff_Symbols.html
8. ArticulationArticulation.html
9. DynamicsDynamics.html
4. EnharmonicsEnharmonics.html
11. Writing StylesWriting_Styles.html

ORNAMENTS are notational tools that describe a variety of other musical situations.

The PORTAMENTO is a slide between two pitches.

While the portamento is a smooth slide from one note to another, The GLISSANDO is rough slide between two pitches, hitting the notes in between the notated pitches, but very quick.

A TRILL is a repetition of alternating between two adjacent notes a 2nd (min 2nd or maj 2nd) apart.

These two examples sound the same!

A GRACE NOTE is a note which is quickly stuck before another more emphasized note, usually a 2nd away.

These two examples almost sound the same, but the grace note is actually a bit quicker.


A FERMATA is a hold in duration - only to end at the conductor’s or band leader’s signal. The duration of the note underneath the fermata doesn’t really matter, because the symbol tells the reader to hold the note until cued from the conductor to release, so having an eighth or quarter note would not change the duration of this note, only the conductor does.